Last Speakers / Lost Worlds




Dying Languages /Background

Every two weeks, somewhere around the world, a human language is lost* – that is, an entire tribal group loses its intimate connection with an essential part of its culture and history as the last fluent speaker of its native tongue passes.


Of the world's estimated 7000 spoken languages there are 478 with less than 100 individuals with fluency and 140 with less than 10 fluent speakers. Every 10 to 14 days one of these languages goes extinct... forever.

A notable aspect of this extinction is that while much notice, rightly, is given to the disappearance of animal habitat and diminishing numbers of elephants, lions, rhinocerous, mountain gorillas and myriad other species, most people have no knowledge of the rapid and irrevocable extinction of human languages. While a language that has dwindled to a few remaining fluent speakers is almost certainly beyond recovery (without massive commitment of its remaining members pulling together in a resuscitation effort) many researchers are making last-ditch attempts to at least record some of the 85% of our human languages for which there is no record. No one, however, is making a concentrated effort to systematically photograph these lonely individuals of once-vibrant populations, these Last Speakers.

The United States has lost more languages than any other country since World War II: fifty-three native American tongues have gone extinct. A good grasp of the nation's dominant language, English, is a necessary skill if one wishes to integrate and "get ahead". The situation is similar around the world whether that dominant language be Mandarin, Hindi, Spanish, Russian, Arabic or one of the other 79 most-spoken languages; these 85 dominant languages are used by about 78% of the world's 7 billion people while the least spoken 3,500 languages, in total, have only 8.25 million speakers.



* The National Geographic Society



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project deliverables

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list of 25 languages on the brink

short descriptions of these 25 languages

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UNESCO list of languages with less than 10 fluent speakers

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Small languages, more than large ones, provide keys to unlock the secrets of nature, because their speakers tend to live in proximity to the animals and plants around them, and their talk reflects the distinctions they observe. Russ Rymer, "Vanishing Languages." The National Geographic Magazine, July 2012.





The Last Speakers Lost Worlds Project

This photo-documentary project will travel to 25 to 45 locations around the world, starting in North America, to execute portraits of the remaining or handful of last fluent speakers in those languages most at risk of disappearing – that is, those with fewer than 10 fluent speakers left in the culture. While there are nearly 150 such languages around the world, traveling to 25 to 45 is a forbidding, but manageable beginning. I am hoping our example will encourage photographers close to other similar communities to take up the challenge of documenting these vanishing populations.

While the death of a full language does not necessarily mean the disappearance of its whole culture, language is the most visible of a people's patrimony. When fluency goes so does much of a population's discrete identity. As Russ Rymer points out in his article Vanishing Voices, "saving a language is not something linguists can accomplish... salvation must come from within," but I would like to at least see photographers joining linguist's efforts by photo-documenting the remaining speakers of languages that will, in all probability, become extinct.

It is a sad fact that 45 of these languages have only ONE or TWO fluent speaker remaining, leaving the possibility that there may not be time to reach some of these elderly individuals before it is too late, especially as we cannot hop-scotch from location to location to cover these isolated individuals. In fact, in the last couple of years since I began researching my interest in dying languages, some of the ones on my list have expired with the death of their last fluent speaker. I have included a few at the end of this page as illustrative of the accelerating rate of loss of this cultural patrimony.

This project involves field travel to photo/video-document the last speakers of 25 to 45 of the most endangered languages in the world in their typical, local environments.

It is a 20 month project* divided into five sections:

  • the United States and Canada

    • Tuscaworus
    • Wintu-Nomlaki
    • Tolowa
    • Patwin
    • Chemehuevi


  • Central America and Brazil

    • Kaixana
    • Apiaka


  • the rest of South America

    • Yaghan
    • Tinigua
    • Taushiro
    • Qawasqar
    • Puelche
    • Chamicuro


  • Africa

    • Ongota
    • Njerep
    • Bikya


  • Asia

    • Yarawi
    • Volow
    • Tanema
    • Pazeh
    • Lemerig
    • Dusner
    • Dumi
    • Ainu

NOTE: Data for the state of endangerment and numbers of speakers for each language is taken from Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition) and UNESCO.





Small . Russ Rymer, "Vanishing Languages." The National Geographic Magazine, July 2012.






On this project I will be working with both still photography and video. The still camera systems are the Leica M-P 240 digital camera with the Tri-Elmar-M 16-18-21mm, Summicron-M 35mm, Zeiss Sonnar-C 50mm and Canon 85mm (a 1959 chrome beauty) lenses and the the Fuji X-T1 (or Fuji X-Pro2) with the seven lenses I own for the system. I will carry the Photoflex LiteDome Q3 Light Modifier with flash for fieldwork fill-light as well as other small supplementary lighting and reflective umbrellas.

Wilbur Norman articles on the subject

Wilbur Norman photography


I will be accompanied by videographer Michael Bou-Nacklie (Asir: Sand In An Hourglass) who will record live interviews and the sounds of these disappearing languages. We will create a 60 minute documentary about the project. Michael will use Fuji X-cams with a Zoom H4n 4-Channel Handy Recorder and wired lavalier microphones.

Asir: Sand In An Hourglass trailer by Michael Bou-Nacklie

Asir: Sand In An Hourglass book by Michael Bou-Nacklie

Wounded Memories by Michael Bou-Nacklie



As many, perhaps most, native peoples have been treated shabbily in their countries, it is not always an easy task to get permissions to photograph in their communities. We anticipate spending at least five days, perhaps more, in each location to gain familiarity and acclimate both our Last Speakers to us and us to them. As a former anthropologist I know this to be daunting but believe it to be do-able with the help of the sorts of local 'fixers' I have always used in my travels to pre-arrange, where possible, site visits.







"Prosperity, it seems, speaks English." Russ Rymer, "Vanishing Languages", regarding the global impact of television.





Project Deliverables & Outputs

We will have a gallery show of the photographs, probably at one of the photo specialist galleries in Santa Fe, NM.

We will write a book about The Last Speakers Project, complete with our photographs, and endeavor to find a publisher.

We will produce a 30 minute, or longer, film to accompany the above book project.

 

* Everything at all times is in a state of flux or melt-down in the sorts of places these Last Speakers inhabit so the time frame may shrink or, more likely, expand some with conditions in the areas I will travel.

 




One savant has called a (viable) language a "dialect with an army."





Research

Click here to read a few articles on world language loss.







Languages on the Brink

Buy experiences instead of things.




| Yarawi

 

Description: arawi

 

This Papuan language was spoken in the Morobe Province. A part of the Binanderean family of the Trans-New Guinea phylum of languages, this was most spoken during the 20th century but is now nearing extinction as natives switch to Binandere. Only one fluent speaker is known to remain.

 

 

| Yaghan

 

Description: aghan

 

This is one of the indigenous languages of the Yagan people of Tierro del Fuego, Chile. This is considered as a language isolate although some linguists had attempted to relate it to other dialects such as the Kawesgar and Chon. Along with other Fuegian languages, this was included in the first South American languages that were recorded by European explorers and missionaries. However, as of 2015, only one native speaker remains, Cristina Calderon of Villa Ukika on Navarrino Island, Chile, who is popularly known as 'Abuela'.

 

 

 

| Wintu-Nomlaki

 

Description: intu-Nomlaki

 

Wintu-Nomlaki is the language spoken by the Wintu tribe in California. The language is comprised of two dialects including the Nomlaki, which is spoken by the people along the Sacramento River south of Red Bluff; and Wintu. The Wintu tribe is part of the loose of people known as the Wintun or Wintuan, while others are known as Nomlaki and Patwin. Nowadays, descendants of the Wintu tribe can be found on the Round Valley Reservation, Colusa, Cortina, Grindstone Creek, Redding, and Rumsey Rancheria. Part of the Penutian language family, the Wintu-Nomlaki language is critically endangered with only one fluent speaker and several speakers with moderate command of the language remaining.

 

 

 

 

| Volow

 

Description: olow

 

This language is spoken on the Motalava Island, which is a part of the Republic of Vanuatu. Located near the east coast of Australia, the Republic of Vanuatu is composed of indigenous Austronesian languages, which are named after the island they are spoken on though larger islands have different languages as well. Volow is nearing extinction as it has only one known native speaker as of 2015.

 

 

 

| Tolowa

 

 

Description: olowa

 

This language is spoken by the Tolowa Native American tribe with only a few members located in the Smith River Rancheria, which is a sovereign nation near Crescent City, California. This is a part of the Pacific Coast subgroup of the Athabaskan language family with other closely-related languages such as the Roque River Athabaskan and Upper Umpqua, which forms the distinctive Oregon Athabaskan cluster within the subgroup. It is critically endangered, currently having only one speaker left.

 

 

 

| Tinigua

 

Description: inigua

This is a nearly extinct language isolate spoken in Colombia with only one remaining speaker living near the Guayabero River. This language originated from the Pamiqua language, which is already extinct. While originally from the Yari River, descendants of the Tinigua tribe are now living in the Meta Department between the Upper Guayabero and Yari rivers but they are no longer speaking the dialect.

 

 

 

| Taushiro

 

Description: aushiro

An isolated language of native Peru, this is also known as Tausiro in Spanish. This was the language spoken in the region of the Tigre River and Aucayu River, a tributary of the Ahuaruna River. In 2008, a study conducted there noted that there is only one person who can speak the language fluently making it nearly extinct. Other native speakers, mainly from the Loreto Province and Tigre River basin, have married non-Taushiro speakers and adopted other Spanish languages.

 

 

 

| Tanema

 

Description: anema

This is a critically endangered language of the island of Vanikoro, an easternmost province off of the Solomon Islands, Temotu Province, and in an Emua village. Currently there is only one known speaker, Lainol Nalo, as many of those who once spoke Tanema have adapted and have started to speak Pijin or Teanu, which are popular languages of the region. Tanema is of Austronesian as well as Malayo-Polynesian, Central Eastern, and Oceanic origin. Some sources, UNESCO among them report there may actually be three other speakers exhibiting fluency in the language.

 

 

 

| Qawasqar

 

Description: awasqar

 

This is an Alcalutan language that was spoken in southern Chile by the Kawesqar people. There were originally several distinct dialects and Kakauhua is sometimes listed as one. However, the language family containing these two languages: Qawasqar and Kakauhua, is known as Alcalufan. Nowadays, only 20 speakers remain and half of them live on Wellington Island, off the southern coast of Chile.

 

 

 

| Puelche

 

Description: uelche

 

This is a nearly moribund language of the Puelche people in the Pampas region of Argentina. Long considered as a language isolate, there is very limited evidence that it may have been related to the Querandt of the Het people, or the Chon languages. According to Ethologue, it may still have five or six speakers, if it is not extinct yet.

 

 

 

| Pazeh

 

Description: azeh

 

This is the language of a Taiwanese aboriginal people, which originated from the Austronesian language. While there was only one remaining native speaker of the language, 96-year-old Pan Jin-yu, she was able to teach 200 regular students in Puli and a few students in Miaoli and Taichung before her recent death.

 

 

 

| Patwin

 

Description: atwin

This is a Native American language that is spoken in the western United States. Descendants of the Patwin tribe still live in Cortina and Colusa outside of San Francisco where there is only one documented fluent speaker. However, Patwin language classes have been brought back in 2010 at the Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation tribal school. There is also an extensive California Indian Library Collection of the Patwin language and history research section at the Tewe Kewe Cultural Center of the Yocha Dewe Wintun Nation as of 2012.

 

 

 

| Ongota

 

Description: ngota

 

Ongota is an extinct Afro-Asiatic language spoken on the west bank of the Weito River in a tiny village in southwest Ethiopia with only 8 elderly speakers. The rest of the villagers had already adopted the Tsamai language. However, unlike other extinct languages, there is a professor named Aklilu Yilma of Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia who studied the language. His studies showed that Ongota follows a structure of subject, object, and verb. Ongota has features of both Afroasiatic and Nilo-Saharan as traces of these languages remained in the dialect.

 

 

 

| Njerep

 

Description: jerep

 

A Bantoid language spoken in Nigeria, it was also once spoken in the Cameroon near the Mambila. However, this was replaced by different Mambila dialects such as the Ba and Myop. There are now only 4 speakers, none of them younger than 60 making.

 

 

 

| Lemerig

 

Description: emerig

 

This is an Oceanic language that is spoken in Vanuatu, an island situated in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean, which is about 1000 miles east of northern Australia. This language is not actively spoken anymore, as there are only 2 remaining speakers of the language as of 2008, making it critically endangered. Lemerig is known to consist of four different dialects, all of which are probably extinct.

 

 

 

|  Kaixana

 

Description: aixana

 

This language is said to be critically endangered with its sole remaining speaker, a man in his 80s named Raimundo Avelino, residing in Limoeiro, a municipality of Japura in the state of Amazons. It was once spoken in a village near the banks of the Japura River until the Portuguese settlers took it over.

 

 

 

| Dusner

 

Description: usner

 

The spoken tribal language in the Wandamen Bay area Cenderawasih in Papua, Indonesia, this language is critically endangered as it was reported that there are only three remaining speakers of this language, and they were reported to be injured during a natural disaster. Linguists from the University of Oxford are striving to preserve the Dusner language as it was reported that two of those remaining native speakers narrowly escaped death during a flood while the other one is living near a volcano when it erupted. Recently another 17 speakers have been located enlarging the language's base of fluent speakers more than 5 times!

 

 

 

| Dumi

 

Description: umi

 

This is a Kiranti language mainly spoken in the area around the Tap and Rava rivers and in the mountains of Khotang District in Nepal. With only 8 people speaking the language, which is a part of the Tibeto-Burman language family, this is considered to be critically endangered. Preservation of the language has been made by creating a dictionary, as well as a number of books written about the language's grammar and syntax.

 

 

 

 

| Chemehuevi

 

Description: hemehuevi

 

This language is a Uto-Aztecan, Northern Uto-Aztecan, Numic, Southern language spoken by the Chemehuevi tribe. You can hear this language being spoken in Ute, Colorado and in other areas like Southern Pauite, Utah, northern Arizona, southern parts of Nevada, and the Colorado River in California. Though the Chemehuevi is still existing and thriving today, only 3 adults are known to fully speak the language. Common Chemehuevi words still spoken today include kaiv for mountain, hucip for ocean, mahav for tree, and tittvip for ground or soil.

 

 

 

 

 

| Chamicuro

 

Description: hamicuro

 

This is a critically endangered language with only 8 people known to speak the language. The Chamicuro tribe, which is an aboriginal tribe in South America, has a population of 10 to 20 people who live in the tributary of the Huallaga River in a beautiful plain called Pampa Hermosa in Peru. Though a Chamicuro dictionary has been created, no children can speak the language as they all shifted to Spanish.



 

 

 

 

 

| Bikya

 

Description: ikya

 

Bikya, which is also known as Furu, is a Bantoid language spoken in Cameroon. The language was put in the spotlight when an English linguist, David Dilby, filmed an 87-year old woman speaking in Bikya, her native tongue. Four surviving speakers were identified in 1986, now only man in his late seventies possibly remains.

 

 

 

 

 

 

| Apiaka

 

Description: piaka

 

Apiaka is the spoken language of the indigenous people of the same name who reside in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Belonging to the sixth branch of the Tupi language, the Apiaka dialect is considered by UNESCO to be critically endangered where there is only one remaining speaker who can fully speak the language. Nowadays, most people of the Apiaka tribe speak Portuguese, while those who intermarry with other tribes speak their spousesÕ language. While there had been attempts to revive the language, these were mainly unsuccessful. However, there is a recent initiative to revive the language through the production of the "Apiaka Word" textbook.

 

 

 

 

 

| Ainu

Description: inu

Ainu has no genealogical relationship with any other languages and the variant spoken on the island of Hokkaido is the only survivor of the language family group originally found also on the Sakhalin and Kuril Islands. There are said to be about 10 fluent speakers on Hokkaido, all over 80 years old, with another 300 people attempting to revive it (in a population of 15,000 ethnic Ainu who only speak Japanese.)

 


| Vilela

 

 

Description: ilela

 

An indigenous language of Argentina, it was last spoken by a handful of elders in the Resistencia area of Argentina and in the eastern Chaco near the Paraguayan border. The remaining Vilela natives are being absorbed into the surrounding Toba people and other Spanish-speaking townsfolk. Though it recently went extinct, it included some dialects such as Ocol, Chinipi, and Sinipi, though only Ocol now survives. Some linguists consider the language as an isolate, while others linked it with other Argentinian language, Lule, into a small Lule-Vilela language family.

 

 

 

 

| Kansa

 

Description: ansa

Kansa, a Siouan language of the Dheqihan group, was once spoken by the Kaw people of Oklahoma. However, its last native speaker, Walter Kekahbah, died in 1983. It is a good thing that before he died, a linguist named Robert L. Rankin met Kekahbah, and other surviving native speakers like Ralph Pepper and Maud McCauley Rowe; and made an extensive recordings of the three to document the language and help the Kaw Nation to develop language learning materials.




 







15 Endangered Languages









The Living Tongues Institute map of Language Hotspots







UNESCO provides a classification system to show a language's status (i.e how much "in trouble" it is):

  • Vulnerable - most children speak the language, but it may be restricted to certain domains (e.g., home)
  • Definitely endangered - children no longer learn the language as a 'mother tongue' in the home
  • Severely endangered - language is spoken by grandparents and older generations; while the parent generation may understand it, they do not speak it to children or among themselves
  • Critically endangered - the youngest speakers are grandparents and older, and they speak the language partially and infrequently
  • Extinct - there are no speakers left


Language                                          Number of Speakers & Status

Achumawi

10

Critically endangered

Arho

10

Critically endangered

Arikara

10

Critically endangered

Ayizi

10

Critically endangered

Bangsa

10

Critically endangered

Ch'orti' (Honduras)

10

Critically endangered

Chung (Thailand)

10

Critically endangered

Copper Island Aleut

10

Critically endangered

Gros Ventre

10

Critically endangered

Gweno

10

Critically endangered

Hoti

10

Critically endangered

Hulung

10

Critically endangered

Ibu

10

Critically endangered

Iranxe

10

Critically endangered

Kamarian

10

Critically endangered

Karajarri

10

Critically endangered

Karipuna

10

Definitely endangered

Katawixi

10

Critically endangered

Kawaiisu

10

Critically endangered

Khšvsgšl Uryangkhay

10

Critically endangered

Krenak

10

Critically endangered

Kurrama

10

Critically endangered

Lardil

10

Critically endangered

Lom

10

Critically endangered

Lorediakarkar

10

Critically endangered

Madngele

10

Critically endangered

Malak Malak

10

Critically endangered

Manchu (Amur)

10

Critically endangered

Manchu (Nonni)

10

Critically endangered

Mandan

10

Critically endangered

Marrisyefin

10

Critically endangered

Massalat

10

Critically endangered

Matanvat

10

Critically endangered

Matipu

10

Critically endangered

Mawayana (Brazil)

10

Critically endangered

Munsee (Canada)

10

Critically endangered

Naati

10

Critically endangered

Ngardi

10

Critically endangered

Ngbinda

10

Critically endangered

Northern Paiute (Idaho)

10

Critically endangered

Nusa Laut

10

Critically endangered

Oneida (Wisconsin)

10

Critically endangered

Onondaga (New York)

10

Critically endangered

Osage

10

Critically endangered

Parintintin

10

Critically endangered

Pawnee

10

Critically endangered

Puari

10

Critically endangered

Rembarrnga

10

Critically endangered

Sene

10

Critically endangered

Sowa

10

Critically endangered

Susuami

10

Critically endangered

Taap

10

Critically endangered

Tape

10

Critically endangered

Ter Saami

10

Critically endangered

Thao

10

Critically endangered

Tule-Kaweah Yokuts

10

Critically endangered

Tundra Enets

10

Critically endangered

Wichita

10

Critically endangered

Xambio‡

10

Critically endangered

Yawalapiti

10

Critically endangered

Yiiji

10

Critically endangered

Ar‡ra Shaw‹d‡wa

9

Critically endangered

Kuuku Ya'u

9

Critically endangered

Ngandi

9

Critically endangered

Ngarluma

9

Critically endangered

Zaparo

9

Critically endangered

Ongota

8

Critically endangered

Ajuru

8

Severely endangered

Araki

8

Critically endangered

Ayapanec

8

Critically endangered

Busuu

8

Critically endangered

Chamicuro

8

Critically endangered

Dumi

8

Critically endangered

Kayardild

8

Critically endangered

Munichi

8

Critically endangered

N|uu

8

Critically endangered

Xet‡

8

Critically endangered

Kiksht

7

Critically endangered

Makolkol

7

Critically endangered

Akuntsu

6

Critically endangered

AnambŽ

6

Critically endangered

Arabana

6

Critically endangered

Ipai

6

Critically endangered

Karaim (Western Ukraine)

6

Critically endangered

Kings River Yokuts

6

Critically endangered

Korana

6

Critically endangered

Mangarrayi

6

Critically endangered

Northern Sierra Miwok

6

Critically endangered

Abaga

5

Critically endangered

Aleut (Western, Commander Islands)

5

Critically endangered

Aqaw Gelao

5

Critically endangered

Aveteian

5

Critically endangered

Central Selkup

5

Critically endangered

Cocama-Cocamilla (Brazil)

5

Critically endangered

Dyirbal

5

Critically endangered

Gamilaraay

5

Critically endangered

Great andamanese

5

Critically endangered

Guat—

5

Critically endangered

Holikachuk

5

Critically endangered

Iduh (Viet Nam)

5

Critically endangered

Isarog Agta

5

Critically endangered

Itonama

5

Critically endangered

Juma

5

Critically endangered

Kalispel

5

Critically endangered

Kano

5

Critically endangered

Liki

5

Critically endangered

Luise–o

5

Critically endangered

Lushootseed

5

Critically endangered

Manchurian Kirghiz

5

Critically endangered

Mansim

5

Critically endangered

Naman

5

Critically endangered

Nasarian

5

Critically endangered

Navwien

5

Critically endangered

Ndai

5

Critically endangered

Ngalakan

5

Critically endangered

Nivat

5

Critically endangered

Niviar

5

Critically endangered

Olrat

5

Critically endangered

Oro Win

5

Critically endangered

Paunaca

5

Critically endangered

Res’garo

5

Critically endangered

Sorsorian

5

Critically endangered

Southern Selkup

5

Critically endangered

Tuzantec

5

Critically endangered

Umbrul

5

Critically endangered

Vano

5

Critically endangered

Wunambal

5

Critically endangered

Yuchi

5

Critically endangered

Bonerif

4

Critically endangered

Coeur d'Alene

4

Critically endangered

Dharawal

4

Critically endangered

Guranalum

4

Critically endangered

Lengilu

4

Critically endangered

Njerep

4

Critically endangered

Ouma

4

Critically endangered

Paakantyi

4

Critically endangered

Saponi

4

Critically endangered

Tanema

4

Critically endangered

Tehuelche

4

Critically endangered

Totor—

4

Critically endangered

Waanyi

4

Critically endangered

Worrorra

4

Critically endangered

Awakatek (Mexico)

3

Critically endangered

Baldemu

3

Critically endangered

Bung

3

Critically endangered

Canichana

3

Extinct

Central Pomo

3

Critically endangered

Central Sierra Miwok

3

Critically endangered

Chemehuevi

3

Critically endangered

Kiowa Apache

3

Critically endangered

Konkow

3

Critically endangered

Lake Miwok

3

Critically endangered

Mabiri

3

Critically endangered

Mescalero-Chiricahua Apache (Oklahoma)

3

Critically endangered

Northern Pomo

3

Critically endangered

Saban

3

Critically endangered

Southern Pomo

3

Critically endangered

Southern Sierra Miwok

3

Critically endangered

Tubatulabal

3

Critically endangered

Tuscarora (United States of America)

3

Critically endangered

Ura

3

Critically endangered

Andoa (Peru)

2

Critically endangered

Arikapu

2

Critically endangered

Aur-Aur‡

2

Critically endangered

BarŽ (Brazil)

2

Critically endangered

Cayuvava

2

Critically endangered

Gajerrong

2

Critically endangered

Ganggalidda

2

Critically endangered

Guarasu

2

Critically endangered

Klallam

2

Critically endangered

Kujubim

2

Critically endangered

Kunjen

2

Critically endangered

Kuru‡ya

2

Critically endangered

Lemerig

2

Critically endangered

Luri

2

Critically endangered

Maidu

2

Critically endangered

Oneida (New York)

2

Critically endangered

Poyanawa

2

Critically endangered

Purubor‡

2

Critically endangered

Salam‹y

2

Critically endangered

Sambe

2

Critically endangered

Spokane

2

Critically endangered

Tharkarri

2

Critically endangered

Vacacocha

2

Critically endangered

Wangaaybuwan

2

Critically endangered

Xip‡ya

2

Critically endangered

Apiak‡

1

Critically endangered

Bikya

1

Critically endangered

Bishuo

1

Critically endangered

Chan‡

1

Critically endangered

Dampel

1

Critically endangered

Diah—i

1

Critically endangered

Kaix‡na

1

Critically endangered

Lae

1

Extinct

Laua

1

Critically endangered

Patwin

1

Critically endangered

Pazeh

1

Critically endangered

PŽmono

1

Critically endangered

Taushiro

1

Critically endangered

Tinigua

1

Critically endangered

Tolowa

1

Critically endangered

Uru

1

Extinct

Volow

1

Critically endangered

Wintu-Nomlaki

1

Critically endangered

Yahgan

1

Critically endangered

Yarawi

1

Critically endangered



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